Reese Halter

Plastics Contaminating Lakes, Globally

Toxic plastic pollution is filling up the Great Lakes, the European lakes and even the subalpine lakes in Europe's famed Alps. This insidious byproduct of petroleum has infiltrated marine food webs and humans are indeed in harms way.

It wasn't until World War II that polyethylene (plastic single-use disposable bags, dispensable bottles), propylene (bottle caps, fishing gear) and polystyrene (take-away food containers) were invented, and by the late 1960s being mass-produced. By 1979, the production of plastics in the U.S. eclipsed that of steel. Today, globally, humans produce 280 million metric tons of plastic annually.

Plastics are long chains of monomer hydrocarbon molecules, and one of the principle ingredients of all plastics is crude oil. How much? Four percent of the entire world supply, or about 3.4 million barrels of oil, are used to make them each day.

Earth's oceans are choking with plastics. It is incomprehensible that each day an additional 3.5 million pieces of plastic enter our oceans, or 1.6 million pounds of plastic each year.

Two summers ago, researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Superior discovered that Lakes' Superior, Huron and Erie were crammed with plastic and smaller micro pieces of plastics dubbed 'micro-plastics.' This past summer (2013) they confirmed that both Lakes' Michigan and Ontario were also brimming with micro-plastics.

It turns out that the sources are abrasive plastics, or micro-beads containing tiny bits of polyethylene plastics, which are used in exfoliants, face soaps, body washes, toothpastes and other personal care and household products. The particles are so small— about the size of one sand grain— they slip through the screens at the wastewater treatment plants and then accumulate en masse in the Great Lakes.

Scientists know that both plastics and micro-plastics act as chemical sponges attracting toxins dissolved in water.

The Great Lakes’ micro-plastics are rife with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenol A (BP As), phalates, dioxins and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), which are all known to disrupt the human endocrine system and cause cancers and birth defects.

Moreover, fish consume these micro-plastics mistaking them for food sources, and the toxins are bio-magnified up the food web, ultimately poisoning the humans who consume fish.

In addition, many large cities draw their drinking water directly from the Great Lakes.

The octillion pieces of plastic and micro-plastics in the Great Lakes can also act as a vector for alien species and diseases like the Vibrio bacteria, which cause the pandemic cholera.

Sadly, my favorite lake in Switzerland— Lake Geneva—is also full of plastics. Last week scientists from the University of Bayreuth in Germany found that Italy's largest lake— Lake Garda, which is located high in the spectacular Italian Alps— has 1,000 particles of plastic per square meter and 450 pieces of micro-plastics per square meter. Clearly, Lake Garda's drinking water has been contaminated. Furthermore, European scientists now suspect that lakes in Bavaria mirror this micro-plastic pollution pattern, which is now not only thought to be European-wide, but worldwide.

What can each of us do? Refuse to use or accept single-use disposable plastic bags, refuse to use products that contain plastic ingredients, and please avoid buying beauty or health products that contain polypropylene or polyethylene.

If each of us joins together and refuses to buy these products that are poisoning life on Earth, our global purchasing power will send a clear message to the manufactures and distributors to stop making these deadly micro-plastic sponges. Please help protect our fresh waterways from pernicious petroleum-based plastics—now!

Earth Dr. Reese Halter is a broadcaster, biologist, educator and co-author of Life, The Wonder of it All.

Glossary

Citation

Halter, R. (2013). Plastics Contaminating Lakes, Globally. Retrieved from http://www.bluecommunity.info/view/article/5261e67e0cf26a24b050106a

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